Python Namespace and Scope – Everything you Need to Know!

Python Namespace
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Introduction to Python Namespace

Python namespace is a system that provides a way to organize and control the visibility of names (identifiers) in a program. Namespaces are essential for avoiding naming conflicts and managing the scope of variables and objects. Understanding namespaces and scope is crucial for writing clean and maintainable code in Python.


A python namespace is a mapping from names to objects. It ensures that names are unique and can be used without conflict within a particular scope. Python implements namespaces using dictionaries, where the keys are the names (identifiers) and the values are the corresponding objects.

You can also read about : Python Variable and Data Types

Types of Namespaces

Types of Python Namespace

There are mainly three types of Python Namespace:

Built-in Namespace: This namespace contains built-in functions like print() and id() that are always available.

Global Namespace: When you create a module, a global namespace is created, which encompasses all the functions, variables, etc., defined at the global level.

Local Namespace: Local functions or methods create their own local namespaces. These namespaces are limited to the scope of the function or method where they are defined.

Lifetime of a Python Namespace

The lifetime of a python namespace depends on the scope of objects. Once the scope of an object ends, the lifetime of that namespace also ends. This means that objects in inner namespaces cannot be accessed from outer namespaces.

Also read about : Python Virtual Machine


Scope refers to the visibility and accessibility of names within a program. It determines where a variable or object can be referenced or modified.

Levels of Scope

There are 4 levels of Scope

  • Built-in Scope
  • Global Scope
  • Enclosing (non-local) Scope
  • Local Scope

The scope of a name depends on where it is defined in the code and follows the LEGB rule: Local, Enclosing, Global, Built-in.

You can also read about : Python Operators

Below are the examples of levels of scope

Global Scope

Variables defined outside of any function or class have global scope and can be accessed from anywhere in the program.


   x = 10  # Global variable

   def func():

       print(x)  # Accessing global variable

   func()  # Output: 10


Local Scope

Variables defined within a function have local scope and can only be accessed within that function.


   def func():

       y = 20  # Local variable

       print(y)  # Accessing local variable

   func()  # Output: 20


Enclosing (Non-local) Scope

If a function is defined within another function, it can access variables from the outer function’s scope.


   def outer():

       z = 30  # Enclosing variable

       def inner():

           print(z)  # Accessing enclosing variable


   outer()  # Output: 30


Built-in Scope

It includes the names of built-in functions and modules provided by Python (e.g., `print()`, `len()`, `range()`).

Namespace Pollution/ Mistakes

Python Namespace pollution occurs when the same name is used to refer to different objects within the same scope, leading to confusion and errors. It is essential to use meaningful and unique names to avoid namespace pollution and maintain code readability.

Understanding python namespace and scope is crucial for writing efficient and organized Python code. By managing namespaces effectively, developers can prevent naming conflicts, improve code maintainability, and enhance overall program performance.


Almost every element manipulated within a Python program is treated as an object. Even a brief code snippet generates a multitude of objects. In more intricate programs, the count can soar into the thousands. Python namespace manages these objects along with their respective identifiers using namespaces, ensuring efficient tracking of each one.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is the namespace in Python?

A python namespace encompasses a set of presently established symbolic names paired with details about the objects they represent. It’s akin to a dictionary where the keys represent the object names and the corresponding values represent the objects themselves.

Python’s Simple Namespace serves as a tool for generating basic object types effortlessly. It forms a component of the types module within the Python Standard Library, offering a straightforward method to establish a namespace with “dot notation” for a set of attributes.

Python includes predefined namespaces that grant access to built-in functions and objects. These namespaces encompass identifiers such as ‘print’, ‘len’, ‘range’, and others.

In Python, functions possess their own distinct local namespace, housing all variables and parameters utilized within that function. This segregation prevents naming clashes with variables established outside the function, thereby facilitating smoother debugging and maintenance of the code.

A python namespace serves as a defined area that assigns a scope to identifiers such as types, functions, and variables within it. It’s utilized to structure code into coherent units and to avert name conflicts that might arise, particularly in scenarios where multiple libraries are involved in your codebase.

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